Carmen Sarasua

2018-2021 Occupational structure and income in the long run. Redefining economic modernization and standards of living in Spain, 1750-1975. Financed by Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (HAR2017-85601-C2- 1-P). Project leader

According to the standard interpretation of modern economic growth, based on the concept of structural change in GDP and employment (Kuznets), population occupied in non-agricultural activities grew as a result of Industrialization. In the case of Spain, its weak industrial growth would be reflected not only in the low industrial GDP but also in the very low share of non-agricultural population, which reached 50 percent only in the 1920s. Yet when women's work is taken into account not only the total occupied population, and women's participation rates, increase. Given the gender segregation of the labor market, taking women's work into account also changes the relative share of the working population by economic sector, since women worked mostly in non-agricultural occupations: manufactures (particularly textiles), and services (domestic service and retailing).

In recent years several research groups in Europe, including ours, are reconstructing women's occupations in pre-industrial labor markets. Our conclusion is consistent with what was suggested by proto-industrial models in the 1970s and 80s through micro studies: manufactures were widespread in many parts of rural Europe. As Berg argued: "It is now apparent that the eighteenth-century economy was much more industrial than once thought." (Berg, 1993). This Project starts from this international debate and aims at describing how structural change in employment took place in Spain. We will (1) analyze the occupational structure of the Spanish population in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, particularly for women and children; (2) codify our databases of historical occupations with the PSTI coding system, which will facilitate the international comparison of our results; (3) analyze the importance of textile manufactures in rural Spain, and the extent to which the share of non-agricultural employment was higher in the 18th century than in the 19th century, unlike the standard vision of structural change in employment has traditionally argued; (4) the ages of schooling and entrance to labor markets, in relation to formation of human capital, children's work, and family income; (5) continue our research on historical wages, moving from series of monetary wages of a few occupations to the calculation of family income, using family budgets as proxies for long term tendencies in inequality and poverty; (6) conduct an in-depth study of an exceptionally useful occupation, wet-nurses of foundling hospitals, whose wages are not affected by the many methodological problems of most series of historical wages; (7) studying double occupations and temporary and seasonal migrations, important sources of income for families yet very poorly known.

2013-2017 Wages, Women's Participation and Living Standards, 1750-1950. Financed by Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (HAR2013-47277-C2-1-P), Principal Investigator.

2010-2012 Reconstructing the Female Activity Rate in Spain, 18th to 19th centuries. Financed by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (HAR2009-11709), Principal Investigator.

2010-2011 Reconstructing the Female Activity Rate in the territories of the Crown of Aragón, 1716-1816. Financed by Institut Català de les Dones (U-35/10), Principal Investigator.

2010 Reconstructing the Female Activity Rate in Western Europe, 18th and 19th centuries (Exploratory Workshop). Financed by the European Science Foundation (Standing Committee for Social Sciences). Convenor: Carmen Sarasúa. Co-convenor: Jane Humphries (Oxford U.).

2009-2012 UHE. Economic Institutions, Living Standards, Environment. Research Group (SGR 962). Financed by AGAUR. Principal Investigator.

2005-2010 Gender and Well-being: Interactions between Work, Family and Public Policies (COST-A34). Financed by the European Science Foundation (ESF) and European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST), directed by Prof. C. Borderías (UB).

2003-2006 Women's work and union participation during Franco's dictatorship (1940-1980). Financed by Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Principal Investigator. +

2001-2004 The socio-economic role of domestic service as a factor in European identity. Financed by the European Comission, directed by Prof. A. Fauve-Chamoux (EHESS, París).

2001-2003 Tensions of Europe: Technology and the making of 20th Century Europe. Financed by the European Science Foundation. Directed by Prof. Johan Schot (Eindhoven University of Technology).

1993-1995 Gender and the construction of working time. Financed by the European Comission, DG VII, directed by Prof. Olwen Hufton and Prof. Yota Kravaritou (European University Institute).